Af, myoepithelial cell staining in a normal nipple duct, patient 4, serial sections. In order to fill the gaps left by the lack of studies on myoepithelial cells articles on smooth muscle cells are used. Oct 30, 20 breast adenomyoepithelioma is an unusual tumor characterized by a biphasic proliferation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells. The myoepithelial cell layer may serve as a potential trigger. The myoepithelial cell at a glance myoepi cells are attached to the basement memb by hemidesmosomes adjacent luminal epithelial cells by desmosomes. The cells display long, thin processes that radiate from the cell body. It is assumed that they take part in the expulsion of the saliva, and possibly they support. The clinical and pathologic features of 31 breast lesions composed of a prominent proliferation of myoepithelial cells either admixed with epithelial cells or in pure form were studied. Rna extracted from mouse mammary basal cells cultured for 1 day. Ultrastructure of myoepithelial cells in human mammary gland tumors. Malignant changes arising in this lesion are extremely rare and may involve one or both cellular components.
Myoepithelial cells are normal constituent of the salivary acini and smaller ducts, and are found between the epithelial cells and the basement. Myoepithelial cells mec are found in the secretory units of many mammalian exocrine glands such as mammary, sweat, lacrimal and salivary. Myoepithelial cell an overview sciencedirect topics. However, hyperplasia of the myoepithelial cells mecs often accompanies glandular hyperplasia eg, sclerosing adenosis, papillomatosis and can resemble benign myoepithelial neoplasms, ie, adenomyoepitheliomas ames. Most breast adenomyoepitheliomas are considered to be benign or to have a lowgrade malignant potential, characterized by propensity for local recurrence. Perturbed myoepithelial cell differentiation in brca mutation. Transmission electron micrograph of lactating mouse mammary epithelium. These may be positive for alpha smooth muscle actin and can contract and expel the secretions of exocrine glands. The myoepithelial cell layer may serve as a potential.
The mammary gland consists of an extensively branched ductal network contained within a distinctive basement membrane and encompassed by a stromal compartment. The human breast epithelium is a branching ductal system composed of an inner layer of polarized luminal epithelial cells and an outer layer of myoepithelial cells that terminate in distally located terminal duct lobular units tdlus. The aim of this paper was to evaluate a panel of markers for the identification of four different myoepithelial cell morphological types in the normal and neoplastic mammary gland and to investigate immunohistochemical changes from an epithelial to a. Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare malignant cancerous tumor that usually occurs in the salivary glands in the mouth, but can also occur in skin and soft tissues. Selfrenewing cells that generate such multilineage outgrowths are termed. Research article proliferative activity of myoepithelial cells in. They are found in the sweat glands, mammary glands, lacrimal glands, and most importantly in salivary glands. The mammary myoepithelial cell was named the cinderella of mammary cell biology in light of the earlier focus on the luminal cell.
Myoepithelial cells produce and are in direct contact with the basement membrane bm. Pdf myoepithelial cells are normal constituent of the salivary acini and smaller ducts, and are found between the epithelial cells and the. We now need to understand more about their origin and to reconsider their place in the complex process of mammary morphogenesis. Myoepithelial cells were observed to wrap around tumor cells as they protruded into collagen i and to limit the extent of their invasion fig. Actinrich myoepithelial cells in ductal carcinomainsitu of the breast. Myoepithelial cells mecs are one of the nonsecretory components of salivary gland acini. Myoepithelial cells in pathology pubmed central pmc. Soft tissue myoepithelioma myoepithelial carcinoma mixed tumor. Myoepithelial cell differentiation markers in ductal. Myoepithelial cell article about myoepithelial cell by. Classically, they are found in the parotid gland or palate. Presence of myoepithelial cells in a hyperplastic tissue proves the benignity of the gland and, when absent, indicates cancer.
Myoepithelial cells definition of myoepithelial cells by. Myoepithelial cell markers have also been used to classify papillary lesions. Myoepithelioma of the head and neck, also myoepithelioma, is a salivary gland tumour of the head and neck that is usually benign as the name suggests, it consists of myoepithelial cells. Benign myoepithelial tumors results of immunostaining for the spindle cell component of benign myoepithelial tumors are summarized in table 1. Myoepithelial cells associate with the acini and intercalated ducts of the salivary gland, providing support for end pieces during active secretion.
Pathophysiology of myoepithelial cells in salivary glands. Request pdf the usefulness of p63 as a marker of breast myoepithelial cells the identification of an outer layer of myoepithelial cells is a valuable clue in the differential diagnosis of. Myoepithelial cells article about myoepithelial cells by. Infiltrating myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast, a case. Myoepithelial cells from mammary glands, the modified sweat glands of bovine muzzle, and salivary glands have been studied by electron microscopy and by immunofluorescence microscopy in frozen sections in an attempt to further characterize the type of intermediatesized filaments present in. It has been theorized that they gently squeeze the cells of the. It was firstly described as a glycogen rich or clear cell adenoma because of the clear cell com ponent. The few cases that have surfaced firmly document the histopathology of this tumor, but its cytologic characteristics seemingly have been described in only one other report. Mature mecs morphologically resemble smooth muscle cells. Benign papillary lesions are characterized by a continuous layer of myoepithelial cells in the fibrovascular cores and at the periphery of the lesion.
Mature mecs have contractile ability and morphologically resemble smooth muscle cells. Lg epithelium is composed of ductal, acinar, and myoepithelial cells mecs bordering the basal lamina and separating the epithelial layer from the extracellular matrix. Mammary myoepithelial cells have recently been described as natural tumour suppressors. Myoepithelial cell mec processes radiating from the cell body are interposed between the basal surface of. Myofibroblasts, pericytes and myoepithelial cells are all types of specialized contractile cells with which of the following. Mammary stem cells have myoepithelial cell properties. Stains basal cells of prostate and basal myoepithelial cells of breast and is used to rule out invasion useful for detecting benign breast proliferations mosaiclike pattern versus ductal carcinoma in situ dcis negative or rarely diffusely positive pathology 2009. Whereas ductal and milkproducing cells secrete the water and nutriments essential for the survival of young mammalian offspring, the myoepithelial cells, through their contraction, guide the circulation of the milk throughout the ductal tree toward the nipple. The usefulness of p63 as a marker of breast myoepithelial. Perturbed myoepithelial cell differentiation in brca. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you.
They are found in the sweat glands, mammary glands, lacrimal glands, and salivary glands. Myoepithelial cell definition of myoepithelial cell by. Role of myoepithelial cells in breast tumor progression. They exhibit an octopuslike morphology, their processes encompassing the acinus. Smooth muscle bundles lower left of each panel are stained strongly with actin machinery cytoplasmic markers. Lg epithelium is composed of ductal, acinar, and myoepithelial cells mecs bordering the basal lamina and separating the epithelial layer.
Here we present the cytologic findings from a case of infiltrating myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast in a 52yearold female and. Myoepithelial cells are known to be components of both benign and malignant tumors of sweat, salivary, and mammary gland origin. Mammary gland epithelium is composed of an inner layer of secretory cells luminal and an outer layer of myoepithelial cells mec bordering the basal lamina which separates the epithelial layer from the extracellular matrix. Breast adenomyoepithelioma is an unusual tumor characterized by a biphasic proliferation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells. Myoepithelial cells are a dynamic barrier to epithelial dissemination. Secretions from glands are expelled by the contractile function of myoepithelial cells. Types of breast cancer breast pathology johns hopkins. Contraction and relaxation of the myoepithelial cell. Commentary myoepithelial crowd control of cancer cells. Current perspectives in salivary gland tumors c pramod redder 1, v suresh kandagal 1, nupura vibhute 1, pramod s ingaleshwar 2, sharan j shetty 2, sameer ahamad 3 1 department of oral pathology and microbiology, school of dental sciences, krishna institute of medical sciences university, karad, maharashtra, india 2 department of oral pathology and microbiology, a. Myoepithelial carcinoma malignant myoepithelioma is a rare salivary gland tumor composed entirely of myoepithelial cells that exhibit a dual epithelial and smooth muscle phenotype.
Myoepithelial cells sometimes referred to as myoepithelium are cells usually found in glandular epithelium as a thin layer above the basement membrane but generally beneath the luminal cells. Although pap illary carcinomas lack myoepithelial cells inside the lesion, the hallmark of in situ carcinomas is. Jan 29, 20 the myoepithelial cell at a glance myoepi cells are attached to the basement memb by hemidesmosomes adjacent luminal epithelial cells by desmosomes. A benign change of the breast where the stroma becomes dense, similar to scar tissue, which distorts the surrounding tissue a change in a cells dna. In the case of wound healing, myoepithelial cells reactively proliferate. Use of immunohistochemical stains in epithelial lesions of. The usefulness of p63 as a marker of breast myoepithelial cells. The myoepithelial component of ames invariably showed immunoreactivity for cytokeratin, maspin, sma, and s100. Myoepithelial cell article about myoepithelial cell by the.
Myoepithelial cells synonyms, myoepithelial cells pronunciation, myoepithelial cells translation, english dictionary definition of myoepithelial cells. The evidence suggests that myoepithelial cells play an important role in the formation of some benign and malignant tumors of the breast. This example is a lowgrade histologic grade 1 invasive lobular carcinoma. Diagnostic dilemmas caused are due to inadequacy of characterizing the wide spectrum of morphologic and immunologic features which are different for both. Mecs structurally resemble both epithelial cells and smooth muscles.
True myoepithelial tumors rarely are diagnosed in the breast. The importance of being a myoepithelial cell breast. Myoepithelial cells surrounding spaces involved by ductal carcinoma in situ show phenotypic differences from normal myoepithelial cells. In addition, we observed myoepithelial cells capture already disseminated tumor cells and reestablish their connection to the main tumor mass fig. Due to the large size of adult mecs, only part of cells can be seen red nuclei are stained with. Due to this structural feature, nutrients, growth factors and other chemotropic molecules must first pass through the bm then the myoepithelial cells to reach the inside of the duct, and most tumor epithelial cells have to first pass through the myoepithelial. The myoepi cells lining the ducts are spindleshaped cells,oriented parallel to the long axis of ducts as a continuous layer.
Myoepithelial cells in these cases constitute the basal cell layer of an epithelium that harbors the epithelial progenitor. The round cells with scant cytoplasm are more commonly seen in pediatric cases approximately 30% of the cases gleason and fletcher, 2007. Myoepithelial cells are also present around entrapped glandular spaces in benign sclerosing lesions of the breast, but the immunophenotype of these myoepithelial cells has not been characterized. Basal cells consist predominantly of myoepithelial cells intermixed with rare mammary stem cells which occur at a frequency of 1 in every. Certain tumors show ducts and tubules with sharply defined 863 myoepithelial tumor of soft tissue and bone fig. Infiltrating myoepithelial carcinoma remains a rarely encountered lesion of the breast. Myoepithelial cells are cells usually found in glandular epithelium as a thin layer above the. The objective is to explain how the myoepithelial cell is contracting and which factors that control or influence contraction and relaxation of the myoepithelial cell. Myoepithelial cell mec processes radiating from the cell body are interposed between the basal surface of epithelial cells ec and the basal lamina. Monomorphic myoepithelial cells of either plasmacytoid or spindle cell type are abundant fig. Myoepithelial cells are thought to have contractile properties. Myoepithelial cells are a dynamic barrier to epithelial.
The importance of being a myoepithelial cell breast cancer. During lactation, production of milk depends on the action of the two epithelial cell types that make up the ductal network. Myoepithelial cells are also found in greater or lesser numbers in a few other carcinomas, and are an integral part especially in epithelialmyoepithelial carcinoma. Look for the triangularshaped nucleus of a myoepithelial cell a in the serous unit in the center of the field. Increasing evidence supports the assertion that myoepithelial cells mecs play key roles in the lacrimal gland development, homeostasis, and stabilizing the normal structure and polarity of lg secretory acini. Nov 18, 2016 myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare malignant cancerous tumor that usually occurs in the salivary glands in the mouth, but can also occur in skin and soft tissues. Processes of myoepithelial cells protruded into the interstitial spaces, giving rise to bizarre appearances. Cells demonstrate plasticity following injury, but the extent of this phenomenon and the cellular mechanisms involved remain underexplored. Myoepithelial medical definition merriamwebster medical. Intraosseus salivary gland tumor with prominent cytoplasm clearing include epithelialmyoepithelial carcinoma myoepithelial cell are immunoreactive for s100 protein, vimentin. These cells express a dual epithelial and smooth muscle phenotype and are likely of ectodermal origin.
Both the myoepithelial cell layer and the bm act as a natural barrier and are selectively permeable to the passage of small molecules. In contrast, the myoepithelial cell layer in the lobular system is often discontinuous defined as the lack of direct physical contact among adjacent myoepithelial cells or the presence of small gaps, generally smaller than the size of one myoepithelial cell in some file lines or single cells and often show vacuoles within the cytoplasm. Myoepithelioma myoepithelial carcinoma mixed tumor. We evaluated myoepithelial cell immunophenotype in 48 benign. Jul 10, 2015 lacrimal gland lg is an exocrine tubuloacinar gland that secretes the aqueous layer of the tear film. Myoepithelial cells mec of the salivary glands in health and. Smmhc and calponin stain endothelial cells weakly, whereas sma stains endothelium strongly right and bottom. Sep, 2019 the normal mammary gland is composed of multiple cell types including luminal and myoepithelial cells 1,2,3. Approximately 66% of these tumors occur in a part of the salivary gland, known as the parotid gland. The normal mammary gland is composed of multiple cell types including luminal and myoepithelial cells 1,2,3.
They showed that the addition of myoepithelial cells to luminal cells in collagen i corrected the polarity of luminal cells, and that this function was dependent on the production of laminin 1 but was not reproduced by laminin 5 and laminin 1011, two prominent laminins expressed in the breast. Actinrich myoepithelial cells in lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast. In the gold standard in vivo assay for mammary stem cells, multilineage outgrowths are generated in primary and secondary recipient mice from limiting numbers of cells. Myoepithelial cells are found in exocrine glands, including highly developed glands, such as the breast, where they form a major population surrounding glandular acini and ducts, and squeeze secretions from the glandular lumina.
Myoepithelial cells surround the acini but have also been found around intercalary and striated ducts. Some mutations lead to a favorable change in a gene or a proteins function, an unfavorable change, a loss of function, or no change at all see also genetic mutation an imaging technique that uses beams of radiation xrays to take an. Myoepithelial synonyms, myoepithelial pronunciation, myoepithelial translation, english dictionary definition of myoepithelial. A similar tumor type may be found in the tongue, referred to as ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor.
Myoepithelial cells from mammary glands, the modified sweat glands of bovine muzzle, and salivary glands have been studied by electron microscopy and by immunofluorescence microscopy in frozen sections in an attempt to further characterize the type of intermediatesized filaments present in these cells. Derived from epithelial cells and destined to become a part of the muscular system. In addition, folds of basal lamina tended to be aggregated, especially around protruberant parts of myoepithelial cells. Myoepithelial cells mecs are considered to be a key participant in most salivary gland diseases, particularly tumors. Apr 23, 2015 myoepithelial cells mecs are considered to be a key participant in most salivary gland diseases, particularly tumors. They are specialized cells capable of contraction aiding in the expulsion of saliva. Quantitative diagnosis of breast tumors by morphometric classification of microenvironmental myoepithelial cells using a machine learning approach. The myoepi cells in tdlus discontinuous, stellate shaped and form a. Myoepithelial definition of myoepithelial by the free. Epithelialmyoepithelial carcinoma of parotid gland a. Myoepithelial cells are spindleshaped, contractile, smooth musclelike cells of epithelial origin that are arranged longitudinally or obliquely around sweat glands and the secretory alveoli of the mammary gland. Myoepithelium is present in canine mammary tumors as resting and proliferative suprabasal and spindle and stellate interstitial cells.
The tumor shows wide morphologic and cytologic diversity in a similar way to its benign counterpart, myoepithelioma, with evidence of malignant change. Myoepithelial cells are a normal constituent of the salivary acini and ducts and are found between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. Microscopically myoepithelial cells are thin and spindleshaped and ultrastructurally they possess a number of cytoplasmic processes that extend between and over the acinar and ductallining cells, and they show features of both smooth muscle and epithelium. The resultant etv6ntrk3 fusion product is a constitutively active chimeric tyrosine kinase and has transformation capacity in the mammary epithelial and myoepithelial cells. Myoepithelial cells in these cases constitute the basal cell layer of an epithelium that harbors the epithelial.16 752 383 1008 102 1351 1297 846 436 1029 1347 1251 995 1189 198 126 271 672 98 1144 694 90 629 1003 1452 1297 1499 301 45 794 957 1286 859 28 773 935 1087 996 1362